Leishmaniasis reported in seven departments of Paraguay


So far in 2023, 13 confirmed cases have been recorded, nine of which are of the visceral type and four of which are membranous.

Those affected come from Central, Concepción, Itapua, Paraguay, Amambay, Caguazu and San Pedro.

As of epidemiological week 5, there are nine confirmed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the provinces of Central (3), Concepcion (3), Itapua (2), and Paraguar (1), and no deaths from the disease, according to the National Vector Disease Program.

The phlebotomine sandfly / James Jathany

Visceral leishmaniasis was found to be affected in equal proportions in the range of 1 to 4 years of age (3) of both sexes, and in ages 40 to 49 (3) of males, with a predominance of 78% males (7/9).

In 2022, a total of 69 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were recorded, marking an increase of 19% compared to 2021, which recorded 58 cases. Of the total confirmed cases, 87% (60/69) are male, mainly affecting 32%, age group 20-39 years.

Regarding suppressive leishmaniasis, four cases were confirmed during 2023, with a possible place of infection in the provinces of Amambay (1), Caaguazú (1), San Pedro (1) and Concepción (1). No deaths as of (SE) 05/23.

100% of the cases correspond to the male sex and 50% of the infected are between the ages of 40 and 49 years.

In 2022, 57 cases of chondrosarcoma were identified, an increase of 8% compared to 2021, which recorded 53 cases.


It is a group of infectious and parasitic diseases with pathological features that differ in their clinical presentation and prognosis. It can affect animals and humans.

In humans, it can present clinically in two forms: membranous and visceral, the latter being the most severe form which, if not treated in time, can cause death.

Forms of leishmaniasis:

Membranous: ulcerated lesions appearing on the skin and/or mucous membranes.

– Visceral: prolonged fever, lethargy, anemia, weight loss and enlargement of the internal organs.

The dog is the main reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in Paraguay. The signs found in the sick dog are: weight loss, skin lesions (scabs and skin sores especially on the muzzle, ears and extremities), conjunctivitis, fever, decay and exaggerated nail growth. There is no cure for rabies and it is a source of transmission for people.

One of the most important measures to control the spread of the disease is through vector control in households, the elimination of organic waste (remains of fruits and vegetables, decaying leaves, among others) accumulated in the yards, to prevent the breeding of the vector (phlebotomyn or karacha) on wet sand.


It is essential to use insect repellents, clothing that covers the entire body, place screens on doors and windows, and use mosquito nets in rest rooms.

Leishmaniasis is found in 19 countries in the Americas and 98 worldwide. An average of 60,000 cases of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, and 4,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis are diagnosed each year in the region, with a mortality rate of 7%.

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